Finance is a broad term encompassing all things regarding the study, creation, management and allocation of funds. In particular, it includes the questions of why and how an individual, firm or government obtains the funds desired, known as capital in the business context-which can include purchasing equipment, property, land or equipment used in production, selling goods and services, investing in securities, and the like. The process of obtaining capital also encompasses the mechanisms by which funds are disbursed to individuals, firms and governments as needed. All these processes and activities form the fabric of the financial system and are intimately connected.
What is Finance? The study of capital markets, including the study of financial systems, banking systems and the role of central banks in finance is known as Finance. There are two basic areas of specialized focus in Finance: micro and macro. Micro finance is concerned with issues such as retail pricing, direct savings and lending, consumer spending and mortgage banking.
Macroeconomics is the study of economic policies and institutions that affect the national economy. Some of the topics of contemporary macro economics are international trade, interest rates, budgeting, government finance, financial institutions, fiscal policy, balance of payments, monetary policy and central banking. Contemporary macroeconomics includes the topics of macroeconomics, investment, public finance, debt and credit, globalization and domestic economics.
What is Finance? Finance is an approach to economic activity that concentrates on the use of financial instruments to obtain maximum returns from economic activity. The study of finance is often regarded as the study of the stock market, although other financial topics also receive considerable attention from those studying the market. A wide range of financial instruments are included under the definition of Finance. These instruments, which can vary widely in number, include: secured debts, negotiable instruments, equity instruments, bank liabilities, mortgage loans, derivatives, industrial debt, nonperforming assets, fiscal instruments, retained earnings, fiscal balance and credit. Financial markets include government debt, household credit, corporate debt, foreign exchange, insurance, bonds, commodity markets, financial markets and the role of financial institutions in financing the economy.
The discipline of Finance is intimately associated with risk management. Many modern approaches to Finance have been developed over the last half century with an emphasis on identifying and reducing the adverse consequences of any investment in the financial markets. An important area of Finance is a Financial Risk Management. This area of Finance seeks to reduce the adverse effects of unprofitable investment decisions through proper risk assessment and management. Two major components of financial risk management are the establishment of a managed risk fund and the adoption of effective risk management policies.
The main objective of Finance is to enhance the process of money management in order to meet the economic objectives. A firm’s or business’ success depends upon its ability to control and manage its financial activities. In order to achieve maximum long term growth in its cash flows, management must be efficient, consistent and timely in its implementation. It also needs to take into consideration the effect of inflation, interest rates, deflation, changes in tax policy and other economic factors on the financial performance. Finance is closely related to economic policy and planning, as it is essential for the formulation and implementation of economic policy.